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Life Out Yonder: NSA Document Admits ET Contact?

Posted by lahar9jhadav on December 1, 2011




from Frank Edwards, Flying Saucers, Serious Business, published in 1966

"The United States can eavesdrop on more than one intelligent civilization elsewhere in the Universe anytime we are ready to set up the gear!"

The speaker  was  Bernard  M.  Oliver,  famed  electronics  engineer  and  Vice  President  of Hewlett-Packard Corporation. He was well-informed on what the radio-telescopes had done and what they were doing when  he  appeared before the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in San Francisco on July 27,1965.

Mr. Oliver told his distinguished audience that by building a mass of not fewer than one thousand  nor  more  than  ten  thousand  radio  telescopes,  each  about  one  hundred  feet  in diameter, in a ten-mile square of flat terrain such as certain areas in Texas, man could scan the skies as they were never scanned before. By coupling all these instruments together we could, he said, "virtually listen to creation itself."

The cost of such a project?

About the cost of the first atomic bomb – or only about one-tenth the cost of landing a man on the moon.

The array of super-sensitive listening gear, Oliver said, would enable man "to detect the unintended radiation from another intelligent race; their television, programs, their FM radio, the communications they would be using in their own commerce and social life."

"These signals are pouring  in on Earth today in all probability. It is maddening to think that this is happening now -and that we can’t hear it !"

"I predict that by such a listening post on the Universe we would find not one – but several – sources of intelligent life."
Mr. Otiver’s address to that convention of scientists would have been regarded as pure crackpot material a generation ago … or even less. But in the last twenty years many things have happened – on Earth – and around Earth – and out in space, things which all point to the likelihood of intelligent life other than human beings of terrestrial origin.

There  was  no  snickering  at  Mr.  Oliver’s  remarkable  proposal  nor  for  his  outspoken conclusions.  None  at  all.  Instead,  he  drew  prolonged  applause;  for  his  well-informed audience knew that the evidence was with him.

The quest for evidence of life elsewhere in the Universe (of which the UFO’s may be one indication) is a  long, long story. It is a story of top-level secrecy, of prolonged frustration -and of ruinous expense.

In terms of money and manpower, it has become, by 1966, one of our major scientific endeavours.

In the case of the United States it began officially about 1924. There had been some activity in this field by  individuals prior to that time, but it was in 1924 that the United States government took an interest and  financed certain endeavours. They had reason to expect results – and they secured results -but hardly what they had anticipated.

Even this experimenting had been preceded by that of Dr. Otto Hahn, a respected German geologist, who reasoned that if microscopic forms Of life were preserved in the ancient rocks of Earth then similar forms might be found embedded in the stony meteorites which were presumably fragments of other planets.

Hahn had neither sufficient funds nor time to conduct continuous and thorough research in this promising field but he made excellent use of what he had. From a meteorite which had been seen to fall near  Knyahinya, Hungary, in the year 1866, Hahn managed to saw off several tiny slices which he polished to a transparent thinness. Under the microscope he was pleasantly surprised to make out delicate figures which  resembled fossilized life forms of very early Earth creatures. Some of these things were unquestionably lacelike striations such as a tiny shell would make. And tiny shells themselves are the product of living creatures.

After two years of patient study of his meteorite fragments, Hahn had managed to photograph what he called sixteen family groups of various sponges, corals, and assorted objects which he lumped together as crinoids,  tiny living things having stems and "arms" which existed (and still exist) in the sludge of primordial seas.

As a double check on his findings, Dr. Hahn tamed the "evidence" over to a noted zoologist, Dr. D. F. Weinland, and asked him for a determination of the nature of the objects.

Dr. Weinland made a careful and protracted study of the material and his findings confirmed what Dr. Hahn had concluded: The corals and sponges did indeed resemble those of Earth, except that they were much smaller. The objects which Hahn had called "crinoids," however, came out in Dr. Weinland’s judgment as some form of sponge. But the over-all conclusion – that all those objects had indeed lived somewhere in space – was the same.

Dr. Hahn was a man of eminence, as was Dr. Weinland, but his scientific stature was not enough to protect him from the poisonous barbs of his fellow scientists when he published his findings in 1880. The accepted posture in those days was that there was no life elsewhere in space – that life as we know it was an  exclusive and unique development on this little planet of ours. To hint, as Hahn did (with Weinland’s concurrence), that somewhere out there another body had once held primitive life forms, and might still hold them, was heresy, no less.

A meeting of scientists at the University of Basle concluded that Dr. Otto Hahn had made an ass of himself, and that Dr. Weinland was his equal. Most of the scientific papers which dealt with Hahn’s findings treated them as though they were ashamed to have to offer such fare to  their readers. From the Smithsonian Institution Hahn was denounced as "a hapless man who has permitted his imagination to run wild with him."

After this shower of scientific cabbages, neither Dr. Hahn nor his colleague, Dr. Weinland, devoted any further efforts to following up what they had found. For the most part they were unable to induce their critics  to even examine the evidence; then, as now, the bitterest skeptics were the uninformed.

It was eighty years before other scientists would take up the work for which Hahn and Weinland had suffered. We shall examine their research in its proper place, chronologically speaking; for in the meantime other men, using other approaches, had been busy in this field.

One of the best researchers was the noted Yugoslav self taught scientist, Nikola Tesla. He is probably best known for the Tesla coil, but his greatest impact on the modern world was his victory  over  Thomas  Edison  which  resulted  in  alternating  current  advocated  by  Tesla, superseding the direct current system advocated by Edison. (He refused, in 1921, to share a Nobel Physics prize with Edison, for whom he had a strong personal dislike.)

By 1899 Tesla was a wealthy, though somewhat eccentric, figure in the new era of electric power  and  wireless.  One  of  his  pet  theories  was  that  power  could  be  drawn  from  the magnetic field of Earth in  such stupendous quantities that it could be used to signal other planets – in case anybody, might be listening there.
After a great deal of conferring with government experts to select a highly charged location for his work, Tesla moved to Colorado Springs, Colorado, where he set up his gear.

It was like nothing that man had ever constructed before; it was a giant-size package of electrical equipment designed to deliver a giant-size blast of manmade lightning which could be loosed in such fashion that it would cross space in a sequence indicating that it was the work of intelligent beings.

In the generation of a mighty wallop, Tesla succeeded beyond his wildest expectations. By alternately changing the flow of the current through that immense coil, seventy-five feet in diameter, and finally  shooting it into a copper ball atop a two-hundred-foot tower, Tesla produced bolts of artificial lightning which literally rocked the countryside for many miles around. He also burned out a power generating station, and lighted electric bulbs miles away by the immense How of current from -his experimental installation – a fantastic story which you will find in the book Prodigal Genius by John O’Neill. And before  public outcry forced him to cease and desist to avoid arrest, Tesla felt that he had evidence to -support his  original contention . .. that somewhere out there in space his gargantuan dots and dashes had been detected … and answered.

The signals picked up by Tesla’s gear in 1899 were periodic and "with such clear suggestion of number and order that they could not be traced to any cause then known by me."

And he added: "Although I did not decipher their meaning, it was impossible for me to think of them as accidental.  There was a purpose behind those signals … they were the results of an attempt by some human beings, not of our world, to speak to us by [wireless] signals. I am absolutely certain they are not caused by anything terrestrial."

Tesla’s  contention  that  he  had  been  listening  to  extraterrestrial  wireless  signals  was well-founded, for at that time Marconi was barely able to send puny little signals a distance of fifty miles – and it was two  years AFTER Tesla’s experiences at Colorado Springs that Marconi managed to get the letter "S" across the Atlantic in intelligible form, Tesla said that his instruments picked up a transmission with a regular pulse -which is not a characteristic of natural stellar radiation, as we now know after years of study. The regularity of the signals, and the apparent promptness with which they followed Tesla’s gigantic sparks, are unique in this type of experiment.

At the same time that Tesla was blasting the heavens with his artificial lightning in Colorado, young  Marconi  was  tapping  out  the  letter  "W"  and  his  co-workers  fifty  miles  away (Wimeraux to South Foreland) finally succeeded in intercepting the signals.

In 1.921, Marconi reported that he had been receiving strange, unidentifiable radio signals on his yacht in the Mediterranean. As with Tesla twenty-two years before, Marconi noted the unnatural regularity of the pulses. He authorized his London representative to quote him as saying that the signals certainly represented some sort of code which he could not recognize, other than the letter "V" then being used in the Marconi code.

In 1962, speaking to the American Rocket Society Convention in Los Angeles, researchers C. D. Jackson  and R. E. Hohmann presented a superb paper on the long search for life in space. In it, of course, they dwelt at length on the experiences of Tesla, Marconi, and also of the fantastic results of an experiment conducted with the  cooperation of the United States government by the Professor of Astronomy at Amherst College, Dr. David Todd, on the night of August 23, 1924.

The Navy was an active participant in this venture for several reasons, one of them being that the Navy had made arrangements with Charles Francis Jenkins to test a device he had just built – an instrument which could record radio signals on sensitized paper tape or on film. Jenkins was best known as the man who  built the first successful machine for projecting motion pictures.. In later years he built the first practical  device for converting television signals  into  television  pictures  -  the  crude  and  cumbersome  (,but   workable)  Jenkins scanning-disc system.

In 1924 Jenkins had progressed as far as this method of intercepting and recording radio signals on  photographic material. The Navy wanted to try to record possible signals ‘from Mars during that planet’s  near  approach during August of 1924, when it would be only 35,000,000 miles from Earth. But the Navy was loath to be tarred with the brush of lunacy if the word got  out that it had sought space signals and failed. It preferred to remain in the background, furnishing the money and the gear and the necessary technical manpower – while someone else fronted for the project. The "old Army Game" of "Heads We Win, Tails You Lose" was also the old Navy game in this instance.

In Dr. David Todd they found their man. He was a respectable astronomer who was fully justified in being curious about Mars. Instead of the old-fashioned telescope he would try to use the newfangled radio recording device.
It was a great night in the annals of eavesdropping on space.

For one thing, the government ordered all American, radio transmitters to remain silent during the period  of the test. Inside the "Jenkins Radio-Camera" a roll of sensitized paper tape crept past a fluctuating point of light – the radio signal being converted into a beam of light that would record on the photographic material. The recording material was about thirty feet long and slightly more than six inches wide.

With the antenna directed toward Mars, and the tiny light flickering the incoming signals onto the paper film, the hours dragged by. Around the world, other nations participated by instructing their wireless stations to listen for strange signals.

Some reported results; some made no reports.

A British Columbia station reported that it had received a baffling series of signals which consisted of four dashes in code, repeated for many minutes.

Amateurs in France and England also reported picking up short bursts of what seemed to be meaningless code. What our own Naval vessels received, if anything, was not revealed.

One thing is certain – none of them got the same results ,as the Jenkins Radio-Camera being used by Dr. Todd for the Naval Observatory.

It had functioned perfectly – if remarkably.

Along one side of that tape were recorded the dots (and dashes) which other receiving stations had reported. Along the other side of the tape, at intervals indicating a time lapse of about thirty minutes between the markings, were strange clusters of signals.

The New York Times reported on August 28:
"Development of a photographic film record of the radio signals in a period of 29 hours when Mars was closest to the earth, has deepened the mystery of the dots and dashes reported heard at the same time by widely separated operators of powerful stations.

"The film… discloses in black on white a fairly regular arrangement of dots and dashes along one side, but on  the other side at almost evenly spaced intervals are curiously jumbled groups, each taking the form of a crudely drawn human face."
The scientists who examined that amazing strip of recorded radio signals . . ."of curiously jumbled   clusters   each  taking  the  shape  of  a  crudely  drawn  human  face"  .  ..  were understandably bewildered  by this strange turn of events. Especially so, since the inventor himself had no idea how the signals could be transmitted to produce such a bizarre result. The apparent caricatures were a sort of seven-day wonder until they were finally filed and largely forgotten.

But the scientists had already noted another aspect of this experiment which may in the final analysis be of greater import than the "faces". They had noted that there was an interesting chronological relationship  between this flood of signals recorded in 1924 and the earlier experiments conducted by both Tesla and Marconi.

For instance, Tesla transmitted repeated regular pulses of radiation in the high frequency bands at a power of many millions of volts, in 1899. Marconi transmitted the letter "V" in the Morse code used by telegraphers, also in 1899.
In 1921, after a time lapse of twenty-two years, the Morse code "N" was received on Earth under conditions which indicated transmission from an extra-terrestrial source.

In the closing days of 1901, Marconi flashed his first wireless message across the Atlantic. It was the code letter "S" and it was a much stronger signal than his earlier efforts.

From December of 1901 to August of 1924, when the letter "S" came streaming in from space is a few months more than the twenty-two-year period, but it is still within the apparent cycle noted before.

It may be pure coincidence, of ‘course, but the seemingly intelligent nature of the signals, duplicating those  we had sent out so many years before, makes coincidence alone rather unlikely.

Which brings us to still another facet of our discussion: Twenty-two years from our space signal  experiments of 1924 brings us to 1946, the year the Unidentified Flying Objects swarmed over Earth, in this case over the Scandinavian countries and parts of Soviet Russia.

Here again it may have been pure coincidence, but such an interesting "coincidence" that it deserves  inclusion, for we shall see that as this phenomenon develops, coincidence alone becomes inadequate to explain what ‘has happened.
Still another broadcasting experiment which lies precisely on that twenty-two-year fine was that conducted by the noted Kentucky eccentric, Nathan Stubblefield, in the summer of 1902. The WASHINGTON EVENING STAR told the story in bold headlines in its issue of May 21, 1902:


The STAR reported that Stubblefield had broadcast voice messages from the Potomac River steamer   Bartholdi   and  had  interchanged  voice  messages  with  prominent  members  of Congress on the banks of the river, by sending the radiations out through two wires dangling in the water behind the steamer.

To make the record inclusive, we should note that this headline event took place almost exactly twenty-two years before Dr. Todd and the Naval Observatory technicians intercepted those strange signals. And Stubblefield’s transmissions of the human voice were, of course, followed forty four years later by the dramatic appearance of the ubiquitous flying disc.
Did these unexplainable signals mean that somewhere out there in space, at least eleven light years away, somebody was trying to let us know they were listening? Were they recording our signals and sending them back to us – a twenty two-year round trip? If so, where were they – if they were there at all?

It did not take a great deal of calculation to narrow the field to a pair of probabilities: the stars Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani. If they have inhabited planets which are interested in us, they are just far enough away to fit the time-lag we have noted.

Somebody in high place thought the subject worth exploring after the incredible Jenkins Radio-Camera experiment of 1924; for in 1926 both the Navy and the Signal Corps, this time using Johns Hopkins University  as a front, built a huge wireless receiving installation in Nebraska. It cost the government an admitted one hundred thousand dollars; not much now but enough to construct a very powerful receiving station in 1926.

Precisely what happened there that summer has never been a matter of public knowledge. The backers of the project admittedly were hoping to intercept radio signals from space and they admittedly tried. After several weeks of activity, the official statement said only that the results had not been satisfactory, which was  probably correct. At any rate the station was cased down, the records were absorbed in the vast government  files, and the attempt was virtually forgotten. But it was made and it was devoted to recording space signals, if any.

Hunting for space signals, in the 1920’s was tantamount to applying for admission to the looney bin. Hunting for traces of fossilized life in meteorites was on the same level, and for the same reason. Orthodox science took the position that there was no life in space; therefore, those who looked for it were daft – and  should be dismissed from the society of solid thinkers.

Not until 1950 did space listening become acceptable. That was the year that the public was told that radio  telescopes, generally vast and expensive constructions, were necessary for scientists to analyze the hissing of the stars. Millions of dollars were spent in many lands on these gigantic disc-shaped devices for receiving and  recording fantastically weak radiation signals from the vastness of space. In the world of science the old fashioned astronomer who examined the evidence of space with the eye was quietly supplanted by a new breed who examined the same evidence by ear. The old order changeth.

Like begets like, you know, and when space radio listening became respectable, a few courageous scientists dared to examine the innards of meteorites again, and to talk about the results.

A meteorite of the type known as carbonaceous chondrite (granular, containing carbon) had been found near Murray, Kentucky, in 1950. It was turned over to the Smithsonian Institution for study, where scientists subjected it to lengthy observation and chemical analysis. Their report, over the signature of Dr. Melvin Calvin, may easily be construed as evidence that they were  aware  of  the  criticism  they  were  inviting.  The  report  was  published  in  the  book Chemical Evolution in 1961, and it identified their findings as "organic compounds" of the type  common  to  primitive  evolutionary  processes.  Few  laymen  were  likely  to  see  that statement; fewer still were likely to interpret it for what it was – a guarded admission that the Smithsonian group had found the basic stuff of life in that meteorite.

So it was in 1953, when a researcher at the University College in London, Dr. George Mueller, set about dissecting a meteorite from South Africa, a carbonaceous chondrite which had blazed to Earth in 1838. The doctor patiently secured from the stony mass a tiny amount of a resin which proved to contain organic acids in complex forms. He also reported finding water which was unlike the water common to Earth. Mueller added his name to the list of those who had found evidence of primitive life forms from space.

For different reasons, neither of those two reports (Mueller’s and the Smithsonian’s) drew any critical fire.
Not so with the work of their successors in this field in the 1960’s.

Dr. Warren Meinschein, an analytical chemist for ESSO (Standard Oil Co.), used a mass spectrometer which brought the revelation that the hydrocarbons of crude oil were evidently the  hydrocarbons of  living  things.  Meinschein’s  discovery came  to  the  attention  of  two scientists  at  Fordham  University,   Bartholomew  Nagy,  a  geo-chemist,  and  Douglas  J. Hennessy, an organic chemist. Having similar  interests, they quickly formed a group to examine the hydrocarbons which a French scientist had isolated from the well-known Orgeuil meteorite, back in 1868.

The findings stirred up a scientific storm when they were published in NATURE, the British equivalent of the Scientific American. Nature said that the study of the Orgeuil meteorite had brought to light evidence of primitive life forms which resembled, but which were  not  identical to, ancient forms of algae which live in water on Earth.

Actually Nagy, Meinschein, and Hennessy listed and pictured five different fossil forms which, clearly indicated elementary life forms in the structure of the meteorite, all of which, they said, had developed in an  environment where water had been available to them for a very long time.

Critics showered challenges from all sides. Their principal argument against the findings of the researchers was that the meteorite had been contaminated by striking the earth. Therefore they said, any earth-like fossils had merely been acquired by contact.

It was not an unreasonable assumption, but it was badly weakened when the scientists pointed out that they had actually studied two different meteors … and the one from France (Orgeuil) was identical in content to the one from Africa (Ivuna).

[To further confound the critics, and to startle the researchers themselves, as it turned out, fragments  of  the  Murray,  Kentucky,  meteorite  of  1950,  were  turned  over  to  the  U.S. Biological Survey for study. There, in a carefully sterilized environment, tiny samples of the meteoritic substance were placed in nutrients and carefully attended. By 1961 "some growth" had been noted. In the spring of 1965 they were still growing! – F.E.]

Summed up to this point in our discussion, it means that reputable scientists have discovered considerable evidence which indicates that somewhere in space there is, or has been, life. If it developed under conditions which seem indicated by the nature of it and by the content of the material in which it was found, then we  have no reason to doubt that it continued to develop – at least until the cataclysm which rent the body on which the life existed.

This in itself is not proof of intelligent beings – not even of little green men – but it is evidence that somewhere out there life did exist – and that is important.

Is it still there in some recognizable form on some celestial body which is capable of being interested in us … and of reaching us, physically, perhaps?

That question has not been neglected, as we shall see.

So far as the records show, there was no consistent search for radio signals from outer space prior to about 1952, by which time the equipment used for this work had become sufficiently sophisticated to justify the expense of creating and operating it.

At that time there were no manmade satellites orbiting Earth, of course. Sputnik No. I was still waiting to make its bow in the autumn of 1957. But there were thousands of patriotic American  citizens  watching  the  skies  regularly  every  night  -  members  of  the  Ground Observers  Corps  -  and  they were  reporting  some  very strange  spectacles.  And  the  few existing  radio  telescopes  were  flooded  with  strange  radiation  signals  from  space.  The problem was to determine whether in this plethora of visual and audible evidence there was any evidence of intelligence.

The  experiences   of   the   early  experimenters,  Marconi,  Tesla,  and  Dr.  Todd,  were inconclusive, but  encouraging. With new techniques, new approaches and ample time and money, the enigma might be resolved.

A well trained amateur, 25-year-old John G. Bolton of Australia, reported in 1947 (June) that he had picked up some interesting signals from a point in space which he was not able to locate precisely with his gear. But four years later Bolton’s radio signal source was identified as Cygnus A.

It  may  safely  be  said  that  radio  astronomy  grew  rapidly  following  Bolton’s  discovery, although  not  necessarily  because  of  it.  He  later  became  head  of  the  Radio  Astronomy Department at Caltech, where he helped install the first two large radio dishes in this country.

In August of 1956, Dr. John Kraus of Ohio State University made headlines around the world with his announcement that he had picked up some very interesting radio signals from Venus.

"The signals come in pulses often lasting one second or more and sometimes there is a string of them, with more or less uniform intervals between," said Dr. Kraus in a paper prepared for the American Astronomical  Society. "The impulses appear to be modulated to an audio frequency of about 117 cycles per second," the scientist reported.

This was not the first time Dr. Kraus had reported such an anomaly. In June of that same year he had  announced that the signals from Venus were very much like those which might be generated by a tremendous and prolonged electrical storm.

But the signals which prompted Dr. Kraus’s second announcement, in August, were vastly different.

"These signals must come from a source of a rather complex type," said the scientist, "and they have many of the characteristics of terrestrial broadcasting stations."

By  today’s  standards  the  1956  radio  astronomy  gear  at  Ohio  State  was  little  short  of primitive.. It had  been designed to collect the signals on a sort of wire fence, the design which gave the most for the money.

But  for  the  greatest  performance,  huge  and  expensive  metal  "dishes,"  riding  on  rails embedded in  concrete, were preferable. They were not long in coming. With the UFO’s swarming around the world – with Russia orbiting manmade satellites — with strange radio signals coming in from space -the tracking  gear  was soon building. Radio telescopes can track satellites as well as they can gather signals from space.

In the early winter of 1959 I reported over the Mutual Network that the giant radio telescope being built at Green Bank, West Virginia, by the National Science Foundation was to be used in a search for intelligible signals from outer space. This was promptly denied, of course, for government agencies dislike having anyone beat them on their own news releases.
What happened at Green Bank?

The Green Bank station’s work was officially known as Project Ozma … with a bow to the mythical Wizard  of Oz. Its first Director was the noted astronomer Dr. Otto Struve, who described it to the newsmen as a  "long-range program," which can mean many things, of course. At that time Struve’s assistant was Dr. Frank Drake, who later succeeded Struve at Green Bank.

Let it be noted that at the inception of Green Bank Dr. Struve devoted considerable time to stressing the importance of the work to be done there, including what he referred to as the great benefits which would result from communicating with a more advanced civilization.

But in 1961, less than two years after it opened with such fanfare and such an expenditure, the public was told that Project Ozma was no more – kaput! – finished! To make the puzzle more puzzling, Dr. Otto Struve  ran under his own goalposts. This time he indicated to newsmen that the project was of little value, and in response to questions on when they might expect news of Ozma’s renewed study of space signals, Struve  suggested that they "come back in a hundred years.

Once again, as was the case with the officially reported closings of Air Force UFO programs, this project was not closed at all. It was merely transferred quietly to a new location, in this case to Puerto Rico.

There,  in  a  huge  bowl-shaped  valley  which  had  been  contoured  with  the  aid  of  giant earthmoving machines, the Office of Scientific Research, a branch of the Air Force, had set up a tremendous space listening station. It was built by experts from Cornell University, with financial and technical aid from the National Science Foundation – a metal-lined bowl about one thousand feet in diameter, many times more sensitive than the movable radio "dish" at Green Bank. Please note that after it was ready to be put into service the Defense Department took control and assigned the Air Force to actual operations.

[The weakness with such devices or installations as this one is that they are not movable, therefore they must take what they can get. Their advantage is that being so much larger than any movable "dish" they intercept signals which are so faint that they would be missed by smaller mechanical "dishes." – F.,E.]

The metallic bowl in the mountains of Puerto Rico, near Arecibo, began operations in 1964. It was merely  the transplanted version of Project Ozma, but this time its findings were classified and concealed from the public.

And on the staff at Arecibo we find Dr. Frank Drake, formerly head of Ozma – the same Dr. Drake who had disclosed, during the latter days of the Green Bank operation, that the radio dish at that installation had picked up some very strange signals which seemed to emanate from the region of the star Tau Ceti. You may recall that Tau Ceti happened to be one of the two  stars  (along  with  Epsilon-Eridani)  which  were  suspected  of  being  involved  in  the apparent twenty-two-, year cycle of signals noted by scientists who had analysed the matter years before Green Bank. At that time terrestrial receivers seemed to be picking up signals which had been sent twenty-two years before – eleven years out and eleven years back. Then, in the "closing" days of Project Ozma at Green Bank, the scientists pointed its giant reflector at Tau Ceti and once again they began  recording strange but exciting signals. And they announced their experience to the press.

The result was widespread publicity and tremendous public interest. The public, which had put up every cent of the money for Project Ozma, wanted to hear more about the success of the experiment. But when newsmen called on Dr. Drake for an amplification of his recent disclosures, he was only able to suggest that a news release would be forthcoming from the National Science Foundation.

And so it was. It purported to be an explanation. It referred to the announcement from Green Bank as a "scare" and dismissed the signals received on that widely discussed occasion as nothing more than "apparently experiments of a secret nature." [There’s something new for you – "secret" broadcasts. You might add to your notes on this subject that the origin or nature of the allegedly secret broadcasts was never clarified nor was the origin, nature, location, or agency responsible for them. Perhaps this is just as well, for even the slipperiest explainers can easily get into difficulties when they endeavour to amplify the nonexistent. – F.E.]

You will find, in the constellations Pegasus and Aries, two points identified by the cryptic designations CTA-21 and CTA-102. What they are we do not know. They are probably not "suns," for to us they are  optically invisible. If they are planets, they would certainly be optically invisible. If they are objects which we cannot see, but can only hear by way of their radio transmissions, then we should be interested in them.

We are.

Soviet scientists reported in 1960 that they were picking up scraps of radio signals which hinted at the  existence of extremely advanced civilizations on or near both CTA-21 and CTA-102. The disclosures by the outspoken Soviets brought prompt comment from British, French, Australian, and American scientists: They too had heard the signals. Unusual signals, yet, but they stopped right there. They left the Russians  alone on the record with their statement suggesting highly intelligent life behind those signals.

The Soviet studies continued, and in 1964 they resulted in a report in the Soviet Academy of Science publication Astronomical Journal, by the eminent astronomer Dr. N. S. Kardashev. He pointed out that the  signals were received on the 900-megacycle band, which is near perfect for extreme long-range  transmission, since it is between the two segments of the spectrum which abound in natural radio "noise"  which creates serious interference with radio-telescope operation.

After noting that the signals themselves seemed to fall within the technical classification of artificial transmission, as opposed to the helter-skelter pattern of natural radiation, Kardashev called attention to the regular rise-and-fall characteristics of the signals.

In view of the vast distances between Earth and the presumed locations of CTA-21 and CTA-102, the signals would have to originate from a transmitter with the energy output of our sun. How could such a thing be?

Kardashev suggests that an extremely far advanced civilization may have learned to use the stuff of their uninhabitable planets to enclose their portion of their solar system, including their  sun,  conserving  and  utilizing  its  entire  output,  minus  a  small  percentage  lost  in reflection. This would explain Why the sources themselves are optically invisible to us – and how they originate signals strong enough to reach us in the broadcast spectrum.

The reality of the signals is undeniable.- Their origin is widely accepted. What – or who – originates them and how -we do not know. At this point Kardashev’s theory is just that. As with Einstein’s Unified Field  Theory and Newton’s Theory of Gravity. Kardashev’s theory remains unproved and unprovable, so we let it remain on the books until we can do better.

I have been trying to show in these recent aspects of our discussion that the interest in signals from outer space  is widespread, that it is being pursued diligently and thoroughly at great expense, around the clock and  around the world. Some very interesting results have been obtained and made public. The expansion of the projects by our own government and the veil of secrecy imposed upon them, also by our own government,  lead me to believe that the meager results which have leaked out are but a small portion of the entire story. The simple truth is that governments do not expand, and squander scientific manpower, on projects which are nonproductive.

Stars are suns of varying degrees. Our telescopes are capable of noting the existence of one hundred billion billion suns. Some of these suns have planets. Do some of these planets have life? Harvard’s Dr. Harlow  Shapley declared in 1964 that one hundred million of those planets Do have life on them.

Harvard physicist Dr. Edward Purcell observes: "It would be rather remarkable if only one planet in a billion (in our own galaxy, the Milky Way) had become the home of intelligent life."

In the Yearbook of Science and Technology (1964) scientists are quoted as saying that about 67 percent of the stars in the Milky Way, of which we are a tiny part, are believed to have planets, because of their glow rotation.

Dr. Harrison Brown, California Institute of Technology, is on record as saying that there are at least hundreds, perhaps thousands, of planets capable of supporting life in our own galaxy.

Barnard’s star, our second nearest neighbour of that type, is now known to have at least one planet which calculation has shown to be about half again as large as Jupiter. But it is so far from its sun – which emits so little light and heat – that it seems an unlikely abode for life. Yet by its mere existence it is important, for it shows that the  pattern  of  creation  which  brought  our  own  solar  system  into  being  also  operated elsewhere.

In a lecture in San Francisco on March 17,- 1965, one of the men who was very close to the Project  Ozma  operation  made  an  interesting,  and  probably  important,  speech.  On  that occasion  Professor  Harold  Weaver,  Director  of  Radio  Astronomy  at  the  University  of California, ventured the opinion that extraterrestrial races would probably first be attracted by our radio signals and that they would probably receive these signals from space probes which they would have sent into likely spots in the universe, to intercept  and re-transmit such signals, which in their original form would have been too feeble to cross interstellar space.

If such a thing has actually happened to us, we would in all probability have been unaware of it, for it is only within the past fifteen years that we have had gear (radio telescopes) capable of locating such space probes. It would be pointless to speculate whether the strange objects seen in the skies of Earth for so many centuries were, in fact, surveillance craft. They were SOMETHING from SOMEWHERE, seen and reported by credible witnesses to the best of their respective abilities. Beyond that prudence counsels caution.

In that same San Francisco speech, Prof. Weaver also said that if one of these space probes from an extragalactic source were to find an inhabited planet emitting artificial radio signals, the next logical step would be to try to contact that planet. How?

"How does it communicate? How does it let us know? It sends some of our own signals back to us…. Maybe that is why we got those ‘beeps’ in Project Ozma! "

Does this mean that the signals which Marconi and Tesla had noted were actually feedback of their own signals, copied and returned from an unidentified craft or body in space? Were the strange facelike markings recorded by the Jenkins Radio-Camera an effort to alert us to the existence of other beings, humanoid in appearance, who also knew what we were doing?

Another startling incident of this same type will be found in the British scientific publication NATURE (Volume 122, pages 681 and 878, 1928) which carried the reports of a team of eminent scientists, Carl Stormer and Balthus Van Der Pol. They had repeatedly received "echo" signals of their own transmissions, sometimes several seconds after the signals had gone out, at other times minutes after transmission. The time lag was so great in either case that  the  only  answer  was  intelligent  and   purposeful  interception  -  and  subsequent re-broadcast.

Whatever it was, it was largely a forgotten matter when similar phenomena reappeared in modern form in the autumn of 1953.

In the three day period, beginning on September 14, 1953, and continuing until September 17, many television viewers in the British Isles were surprised to see on their television screens the identification card and call letters of station KLEE. The signal would come in so strongly that it would  override the local stations to which they were tuned. After a few minutes (generally three or four) the image would fade and the local signal would again be visible.

KLEE was a station in Houston, Texas, and under certain freak conditions such long-range receptions of  commercial television does occur. Several of the viewers in the British Isles had the good sense to photograph this enigma when it appeared on their sets… but when they checked  with  KLEE  for  verification  of  their  unusual  experience  they  found  themselves confronted with another mystery: KLEE had gone off the air and out of existence three years before!
When the British Broadcasting Corporation began its investigation of this remarkable case, it was informed by the successor to KLEE that no KLEE signal or identification card of any kind had been broadcast since that station had gone out of existence in 1950.

A spokesman for the British Broadcasting Corporation told newsmen that for anyone to have perpetrated such  an incident as a hoax would have involved the expenditure of at least a hundred thousand dollars, plus knowledge that transcended contemporary technology as well as the use of towers and other equipment which could not have been concealed and which were  in  fact  difficult  to  secure.  American  and  British  authorities  alike  ruled  out  any possibility of a hoax, and said so publicly.

The case attracted international attention and international concern. In 1959, long after the facts were  dimmed in the public mind, an "explanation" was offered, not by the British investigators, but by our Project Ozma, which was up to its own electronic neck in strange signals from space in 1959.

The explanation? Faith and bejabbers it was that old standby of professional explainers, none other than a mysterious inventor perpetrating a hoax!

For  reasons  which  are  easy  to  understand,  the  alleged  inventor  was  never  otherwise identified.  Neither was he ever charged or prosecuted for such a flagrant violation of the British broadcasting regulations. Nor was it ever explained how he managed to blanket the British Isles from one station, something no other television station has been able to do to this day.

It is my personal belief that we should take off our hats to the Hokum Department in our government for  dreaming up an invention which is more remarkable than the one they purported to explain: They invented the Non-existent Inventor, literally incredible.

At the conclusion of the original investigation by British authorities, a spokesman for the British Broadcasting Corporation told newsmen:

"We are confronted in this instance with a set of circumstances which are at variance with accepted knowledge of television transmission. It is unthinkable that these signals could have been circling the earth for  the time since that station [KLEE] last broadcast them. It is physically impossible that they could have been reflected to us by chance from any celestial body at such a vast distance. That leaves us with but one possibility, however bizarre, that these signals were transmitted to us purposefully and intelligently, from a source and for a purpose presently unknown."


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